strange fires


The New Order Of The Latter Rain


 by L. Thomas Holdcroft, 1980

The movement that was known as the New Order of the Latter Rain is one of the few elements of the twentieth century Pentecostal revival for which Canada, for better or worse, must accept primary responsibility.  Not only did the movement begin in Canada, but in Western Canada specifically.  Therefore, a consideration and review of its nature and effects is particularly relevant on this occasion of the convening of the Pentecostal World Conference on Canada's west coast. In this paper we will first review some of the historical backgrounds of the movement, and then we will make an attempt to understand it and evaluate its influence upon the thinking and practices of Pentecostal Christians.

In the matter of terminology, the expressions "New Order," and "Latter Rain," as well as "New Order of the Latter Rain" were variously applied by the movement to itself in its formative years.  Today's writers from within the movement's ranks now use terms such as "the move," or "the Move of the Spirit," or "the move of 1948." In this article we will use the older terms. 

The Origin Of The Latter Rain Movement

The New Order of the Latter Rain was an organizational schism before it was a spiritual cause.  Its key personnel emerged as the outcome of a succession of disputes involving faculty personnel of Bethel Bible Institute of Saskatoon, Canada, and the sponsoring Saskatchewan District of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada (the P.A.O.C). At the outset, there were charges and countercharges within the Institute between administration and faculty.  But as the months passed, the Institute personnel were reconciled and the conflict came to be between the Institute and the District.

It could probably be said that the basic issue in much of this early conflict was the unrestrained zeal of Institute personnel pitted against the necessary conservatism and restraints of responsible denominational administrators.  A notable event was the launching of construction by the Institute faculty of a six story building on campus to house a high school division, but without approval by either the Institute Board or the District.  Also, at least some outside of the Institute were highly dissatisfied by its casual approach to academic excellence, and by its commitment in controversial doctrines.  These included a view of demonology that saw demon possession as the explanation of many problems within Christian believers, and the encouragement of long fasts with forty days as the ultimate ideal.

Although much of the conflict on these matters took place in the spring of 1947, it was not until its summer conference that the Saskatchewan District of the P.A.O.C. was able to take definitive action.  At that time, the constituency soundly supported and vindicated the District officers, and in effect made final the separation of the discontented faculty members of Bethel Bible Institute.  Actually, they had resigned of their own choice earlier in the season, but they apparently, hoped that the conference might reinstate them.

By the fall of 1947, the Bethel malcontents had moved to North Battleford, Saskatchewan, a town about 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of' Saskatoon.  In leaving Bethel, they took with them the school's essential files and records.  The three key men in this move were Rev. George Hawtin, Rev. Ernest Hawtin, and Rev. Percy Hunt.  In North Battlefield they joined forces with Rev.  Herrick Holt who had been responsible for the Foursquare Church there.  This quarter collaborated in launching an overall operation known as Sharon Children's Homes and Schools which included a high school, an orphanage, a technical institute, and a Bible school.

Although  the District continued to operate Bethel Bible Institute with a new administration and teaching staff, the fall of 1947 saw only a handful of students. The majority of' the returning students, and what should have been the incoming class, followed members of their former faculty to North Battleford.  The nucleus of what was to become the New Order was thus a Bible school student body.

The special spiritual move that became the basis of the New Order movement began on February 11, 1948, some months after Sharon began operations.  This day had been preceded by considerable emphasis and observance of long fasts as a means of special power with God.  In extended chapel services for four days from February 11 through the 14th, the procedure emerged of calling out members of the audience and imparting a spiritual gift to them by the laying on of hands accompanied by a suitable prophecy.  The authorization and direction of these activities was a series of vocal prophetic utterances by both students and their teachers.

It would appear that the student body enthusiastically and whole-heartedly entered into these new beliefs and practices. Chapel services featuring the impartation of gifts by the laying on of hands with prophecy took precedence over all other campus activities.  Other worship patterns emerged that were somewhat unique in their time, with stress upon the visible manifestation of the charismata, and such novelties as the so-called "heavenly choir." Before long, large numbers of visitors were attracted.  Ultimately, all efforts to operate all educational institutions were suspended, and the North Battleford campus became simply a conference and camp meeting center as it is today.

As the message and practices of the New Order were shared, they found other sympathetic followers, particularly among existed Pentecostal congregations.  For a time, some Pentecostal churches, primarily in Western Canada, but in parts of the U.S. as well, became battlegrounds between New Order and Pentecostal denominational factions.  A notable church that became Latter Rain was Bethesda Missionary Temple of Detroit, Michigan.  However, in the U.S., it was not likely the case that churches were lost to their denominationals, but in at least some cases churches were noticeably weakened by loss of their members to New Order programs.  Also, some pastors resigned from their churches to become independent New Order preachers.

New Order leaders sought for and achieved their greatest successes in Western Canada. One worker from that era remembers a leaflet entitled: "How To Take A P.A.O.C. Church" that circulated among New Order groups.  Twelve churches in Saskatchewan and one in British Columbia are known to have left the P.A.O.C., and many others were seriously weakened through the loss of a substantial portion of their members. In some cases, churches that espoused New Order views and practices were independent Pentecostal churches that had been very close to affiliation with a denomination. New Order involvement usually quelled all thoughts of such affiliation and those churches remain independent to this day.

Those who remember events of that era place considerable emphasis upon the "Feast Of Pentecost" which became an annual event extending over several days at Easter. These days of camp meeting style fervor in Pentecostal preaching and practice at the North Battleford headquarters touched large numbers on behalf of the movement. Traveling evangelistic teams also attracted considerable attention, often with rather extreme claims and practices, at least as orthodoxy saw things. Their influence was felt in a variety of places in North America, and here and there they won a company of followers. In general, during this period, doctrine was syncretistic and various novelties and seeming extremes were heard, at least on a temporary basis

It would appear to affirm that during the 1948-49 era, a sizeable portion of North American Pentecostal Christians were either deliberately or inadvertently touched by the New Order of the Latter Rain. Meetings under Latter Rain auspices in major centers typically drew large crowds that were comprised almost entirely of Pentecostals who were members of established churches. In some cases, pastors on the grounds of sincerely seeking whatever God had for their people, deliberately turned over their pulpit to Latter Rain preachers. On the same grounds there were instances in which a denominational committee deliberately scheduled a Latter Rain evangelist in their camp meeting. Not only the lay membership, but often the clergy of denominational Pentecostalism assumed it was their inalienable right to hear the Latter Rain story firsthand and judge its validity for themselves. This spirit of independent autonomy, so characteristic of Pentecostals, was an important factor in assuring a wide-ranging hearing for the New Order of the Latter Rain.

Significant Early-Day Latter Rain Beliefs And Practices

 The aspects of New Order beliefs and practices that in their founding years drew most debate and attention included:

1. Their Doctrine Of The Charismata

One of the basic ideas behind the gift-giving services was that the charismata reside in human channels (viz. those who comprise the presbytery which the New Order defined as two or more elders). Therefore, the conveying of a spiritual gift involves a physical and outward ceremony with the laying on of hands.  A spoken prophecy was to accompany this event to identify the gift and prescribe any conditions of its use.  In general, New Order workers sought to conform to Biblical principles in their doctrine of gifts, but on occasion they seem to have exceeded Biblical guidelines.  For instance, one gift that was imparted through the laying on of hands with prophecy was declared to be "the gift of division."

To refute the claim that New Order workers were personally imparting spiritual gifts, Rev.  R. E. McAlister, who is believed to be the first Canadian to have received the baptism in the Spirit at Azusa in 1906, wrote a spirited booklet that was circulated widely.  The booklet, entitled "The Manifestation of the Spirit" argued that gifts are resident in the triune God, and neither received, imparted, nor confirmed in humans, but manifested.

In New Order practice, the gift of prophecy was made to function routinely to identify individuals by nameIt would then proceed to instruct its subjects in a detailed manner regarding personal and practical affairs, both in regard to the work of God, and in matters of everyday living.  Such prophecies were considered to be certain, unalterable, and above evaluative scrutiny.

In some instances, prophecy was used to pronounce what was said to be the divine choice of marriage partners.  In at least one case, the parties so instructed entered into what proved to be an unhappy marriage, but they were later divorced and today neither is living for God.  In some instances, prophecies uttered in New Order meetings were stenographically recorded and later duplicated and circulated as revered messages from God.

The response of denominational spokesmen, such as Ernest S. Williams, or William T. Taston, to these practices and claims was to see them as unwarranted excesses.  These writers pointed out that prophecy is to be used with restraint, and that it is to be subject to evaluation: "Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge [weigh what is said - Goodspeed]" (I Corinthians 14:29).

In this earlier era, New Order leaders taught that there is a gift of tongues that by direct and immediate impartation equips the Christian worker to preach to those of another language.  Thus God was preparing evangelists to fulfill end time revival Bible prophecies.  However, in spite of claims at that time, according to today's recollections, no acceptable authenticated case of the immediate impartation of a language was exhibited.  One report tells of a young man who was declared to have been given the Chinese language.  Thereafter in street meetings in Chinatown, he exercised his gift of tongues in enthusiastic utterance, but Chinese listeners denied that they understood him.

2. Their Concept of Religious Authority

New Order people certainly thought of themselves as a Bible-based movement.  They would have emphatically insisted that they were committed to an all infallible Bible, and had the word been known and used popularly in those days, they would surely have voted for total inerrancy.  Their writings are studded with proof texts from Bible sources.

Nevertheless, in the scale of authority in religious faith and practice, New Order leaders often gave the Bible second place.  Even as they used the Bible they made much of the distinction between the letter that kills and the Spirit that gives life.  In a choice between the cautious exegesis of the written Scripture, or the excitement and inspiration of an ecstatic prophecy, they would almost surely choose the latter.  And when using the Bible, they tended to spiritualize and to ignore contexts. Thus, they found Biblical proof texts for beliefs and practices where such "proofs" were simply not evident to other Christians.

In a published article, their writer George Wylie speaks of Events "..at the beginning of this move of the Spirit."  He continues: "We discarded all our former doctrines, and left ourselves open to be taught by the Holy Spirit, as the streams of revelation flowed from the glory above." The same writer, in a personal letter, comments: "For many years we printed nothing but the Sharon Star as we felt the revelation was not complete on most issues.  But recently we have felt more at liberty to begin to print some books." Such attitudes clearly favor a mystical subjective inner intuition above the authority of the exegesis of the written Word.

A widely heard New Order sermon was entitled: "Running Without A Message." The Biblical basis was the story of the messenger Ahimaaz (2 Samuel 18:19-32) who ran with a report of the battle against Absalom. Unfortunately, upon arrival at David's court, Ahimaaz could report only': "I saw a great tumult, but I knew not what it was." In New Order exegesis, this incident was the basis of a scathing attack upon denominational Pentecostal ministers who were compared to Ahimaaz in possessing no meaningful message.  Thus, what appeared to be a Bible-based ministry, was actually the presentation of arbitrary opinion, with Scripture serving only as a convenient backdrop (New Order preachers are not alone in this procedure.)

 3. Their Development Of Church Polity

The New Order began as a protest movement by a small company of men who felt unduly restricted by their denomination.  Thus, quite apart from spiritual claims, its spokesman were committed to an anti-established church and anti-organized church position. They adopted a militant doctrine of local church autonomy.  At one stage, their model was the sovereign local church typical of Scandanavia, and they announced that Rev. Lewi Pethrus was coming to Canada under their auspices. In these outlooks the New Order was, of course, not really outside of the circle of orthodoxy.  Christendom has agreed to disagree in regard to the Biblical formula for church governance.  But conflict and hostilities emerged in relationships with the New Order because of their vindictive militant denunciations of existing denominations and church policies.  Their verbal and even published attacks on respected superintendents and other church leaders as "church bosses" and " big shots" inevitably offended and hurt.

But although denominational control was rejected, control by their own charismatically chosen leaders was emphasized.  It was held that present day apostles and prophets were being restored in the person of New Order leaders.  They came to speak simply of "Ministries" to identify such divinely chosen leaders.  These individuals were to be accorded full respect and authority as God's apostolic instruments and spokesman.  That which the ministries of elders ruled was to take precedence over any more democratic decision.  Thus, church governance has constituted a major emphasis in the New Order, and to them it is a vital issue and concern

There were reports of New Order leaders receiving confessions of sin, and presumably pronouncing absolution.  Even the two founding brothers found the vigorous controls of the officiating ministries too demanding,.  In 1953 Ernest Hawtin left the group to accept a pastorate in Oakland, California, and in 1960 George Hawtin (right) was officially excommunicated. A New Order spokesman explained: "It was a case of getting too highly exalted in themselves, and the Lord had to remove them." An outsider says of New Order church policy: "They exchanged 'church bosses' for 'church dictators.'" It may be noted parenthetically that Rev. Percy Hunt died in 1977 still in good standing in New Order circles. Of the founding quartet, only Rev.  Herrick is still active, and although he is based in North Battleford he is described as a "travelling ministry" with no particular authority in any one place.

One of the promoted New Order programs was their Global Missions plan. This was a strategy for administering missionary programs that abolished missions boards in favor of local church administration including the no-overhead handling of funds by a layman church secretary. A good number of missionary candidates were prophetically designated in the early days of the movement, and at least some attempted to serve overseas on these terms.

The Global Missions plan as a strategy for sending out missionaries in the traditional manner did not succeed well.  The problem was that small local churches with a volunteer secretary handling funds was not an adequate home base for missionaries facing a complex modern world.  One account reports a couple sent to the Fiji Islands unexpectedly facing a lading fee equal to their entire support funds for a year.  They were forced to proceed to New Zealand, and presumably either remained there or returned to Canada.  Within the context from which it emerged, the Global Missions plan was a competitive and divisive system. It attempted to override the P.A.O.C. missionary program that was already in effect and responsible for supporting approximately one hundred missionaries.  In cases in which churches that had been supporting denominational missionary programs embraced the Global Missions plan, the results were distressing and unfortunate.

The Movement On Today's Scene

The New Order of the Latter Rain is no longer an exciting rallying cry among most denominational Pentecostal churches, but by no means is the movement dead.  In North Battleford it maintains a well kept 70 acre conference grounds, with an auditorium seating 1,500, a dining room to feed 1,000, and dormitories accommodating several hundred. Twice a year, at the Feast of Pentecost and at the summer camp approximately 1,000 people gather for a week or so.  Its publication Sharon Star still appears several times a year, and there is a weekly radio broadcast from Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.  The Star over recent months has mentioned Latter Rain churches in five Canadian provinces (Ontario and west), and in two states in the U.S.  Camp meetings or conferences under New Order auspices are reported in: Ontario, North Carolina, Indiana, Oregon, and Washington, and overseas in the West Indies and in Korea. Also reported are radio broadcasts in the West Indies and Guyana, and telecasts in the West Indies.

The original Global Missions plan has now been substantially modified and there no longer is a program to send resident missionaries overseas. Today, Global Missions concentrates on sending the designated "Ministries" or elders overseas on preaching and teaching trips on a short-term basis. Their publication lists ten Canada-based Global Missions "travelling ministries," and one of these workers has written to explain: "We are not missionaries to any specific part of the world such as Africa or India; we are missionaries to the world.  The whole world is our field, wherever there is a need and the Spirit leads." Otherwise, some Global Missions funds are used to support native workers in their own homeland. They list these fields as Kenya, the West Indies, and Korea.

An important change in New Order outlooks that has significantly influenced subsequent development began to occur as long ago as the fall of 1948.  At that time citywide rallies were large and growing, and they tell of intentions to build huge arenas to hold the crowds.  Their spokesman, George Wylie continues:

But it wasn't long until we found out that this wasn't what God had in mind at all; that the Body he had spoken to us about, and was going to bring together, was not going to be composed of all believers; but of a certain few chosen ones which he himself would choose.... God brought us to a scripture found in Jer. 3:14, 15.  "Return O faithless children, (That was us) saith the Lord, for I am your master; and I will take you, one from a city, and two from a family, and will bring you to Zion.  And I will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understandings." R.S.V.... So after that we did not look for large crowds, but for the ones and the twos that he would bring together.

This same claim was expressed otherwise by the declaration that the day of evangelism was now past, and God's concern was "the sifting of the wheat" to take out those chosen ones who were to comprise the bride of Christ as distinct from rank and file Christian believers.  George Wylie writes:

This is hard to explain, but there is a witness in oneness with those who belong to the true Body of Christ, that we do not feel with other Christians.  Though all believers are children of God, and we all belong to the same family, there is a closeness and unity and love that exists between the elect of God that we do not feel with other Christians.

Defenders of the New Order position have sought to portray their doctrines as a major step in the long unfolding of Biblical truth.  They place themselves on a par with the Reformers, the Puritans, the Wesleyans, and the 19th century evangelical revival.  New Order doctrine, they believe, is the final rung in the ladder whereby God's people climb upward as they "go on unto perfection." A. G. Wager writes:

Some people are called out of the world but do not believe in any further experience or revelation.  Others are called out from those who have embraced salvation to a further experience of sanctification.  From the sanctified people are called out a baptized people.  From the baptized people are called out a gifted people.  From the gifted people are called out a fruitful people.  And finally there will be a calling out of those who have reached the maturity of sonship .. From the formal and sectarian ranks and the confusion of Babylon, a church is now coming forth; a church of spiritually endued saints, called out to attain the maturity of sonship ... Now a body is being formed by the Spirit of God who will be a firstfruit company, a group of forerunners to live and demonstrate that perfect unity of the Spirit.

The New Order of the Latter Rain has clearly moved all the way from being a militantly proselytizing revival mass movement to the present selective and detached, somewhat exclusive elect circle.  They project a chosen Body of Christ comprised only of those selected saints who have risen five levels above "mere" salvation.  The whole situation has Calvinistic overtones. George Wylie writes:

There is really nothing one call do to assure himself a place in the Body .... our choice has nothing to do with it.  Paul the apostle is a good example of this.  But there is something we can do after we come to realize this calling to make ourselves worthy of this calling, as Peter said, "Giving all diligence to make your calling and election sure."

While there was considerable momentum to the New Order movement in the fall of 1948, when it departed from aggressive Arminianism, the movement slowed down rather quickly.  The biennial General Council of the Assemblies of God, meeting in Seattle in September, 1949,  was preceded by many fearful expressions of a major division in the denomination over the New Order issue.  There was a grass-roots move to try to persuade General Superintendent Ernest S. Williams to postpone his retirement so that he would be in office to pilot the movement through expected difficult days.  As matters turned out, the New Order cause received minimal support, a major resolution expressing disapproval of six major New Order doctrines passed easily, and Bro.  Williams happily handed his office over to the Rev.  Wesley Steelberg.

Today, New Order followers are likely to be comparatively unobtrusive. Although their annual Pacific Regional Conference is held at a site only minutes away from the Salem headquarters of the Oregon District of the Assemblies of God, , Superintendent Earl Book writes: " I know nothing of it ... evidently it has created no major problems among us." The churches listed in New Order publications are likely to be only private residences where occasional cottage prayer meetings or home Bible study-type meetings are held.  At least some of their followers seem to manage without the ministry of a family home church.  Someone characterizes a typical experience of today's New Order followers: "They enjoy a few days of intensive Pentecostal experiences each spring at the Feast of Pentecost, and the rest of the year they spend each Sunday out hunting." In some communities, New Order followers are recognized as Christians only because of their annual trip to North Battleford, or to a regional conference or camp meeting.

Some Lessons The New Order Experience Might Teach Us

Some insights and reflections that are suggested by our New Order experience might include the following:

1. The Human Desire For Participatory Worship

The particular appeal of New Order Worship in its heyday was in worship services that wholeheartedly involved the congregation. People were made to be active participants in praying, singing, worshiping, and ministering and receiving the gifts of the Spirit. Expressions such as "charismatic worship" or "body ministry" were not particularly used in those days, but to a considerable degree the expressions "New Order" or "Latter Rain" denoted just such practices. And in the late 1940's, just as in the time of the rise of the charismatic movement in the 1960's, the appeal of public participation in worship attracted a sizeable following.

A common rallying cry in youth meetings in the 1940's was "We are second generation Pentecost." Indeed, by the time of the New Order, there was the transition from a revival movement to a denomination with the Azusa grounded Pentecostal bodies. Institutionalism was having problems moving too far and too fast. One of the former P.A.O.C. general officers, reflecting on those days has written: "I see a possibility that a slackening in genuine dependence on the Spirit in the worship services, and in the conduct of the work in general, opened the door for some discontent."

It would seem valid to affirm that much that many of us do in Pentecostal worship services today is strikingly similar to what was done in New Order meetings.  We probably learned considerably more from the charismatic movement than from New Order, but the latter at least deserves credit for having achieved it first.  We cannot deny that there was an appeal to the New Order "do-it-yourself' style of Pentecostal worship, and the same basic human desire remains to this day.

 2.   The Need to Evaluate Charismata

From the very beginning of the New Order movement in the prophecy of the coed student on the first day of the February four-day move, prophecy and other charismata were the basis of belief and action.  New Order writings, and more especially the recollections of those associated with them, abound with references to the leading, teaching, and direction of God by direct charismatic bestowment.  What seems to be conspicuously lacking is any adequate commitment to thoughtful, reflective, evaluative scrutiny of the vocal gifts of the Holy Spirit.  They seemingly overlooked the Biblical principles that we have already noted: that prophetic utterances should be limited and they should be subject to the evaluative judgment of others.

New Order worshippers erred in a manner common to many Pentecostals: they gave undue deference to the spectacular and the ecstatic; and not enough to the serious, scholarly, exegetical study of the written Scriptures.  The pursuit of signs and wonders is always fraught with dangers, particularly when they're made to lead instead of following.  No group can remain sound in faith and practice if it gives authority to experiences for their own sake, rather than on the ground of the standards of the Word of God.

3.   The Need to Channel Initiative

The New Order was launched primarily because men with vision and initiative found themselves frustratingly contained by their denomination. For its part, the denomination, through its leaders, was not convinced that what became the North Battleford leadership quartet actually represented a vision that they could support.

Once again, the answer would have been proper appraisal and evaluation. Men of vision should be able to submit their ideas to their constituency, and patiently win support by informing and persuading. Only if they are opportunists knowing that time will prove them wrong will they ultimately reveal themselves to be in an impulsive hurry and unable to engage in cooperative planning. Though the New Order brethren possessed a vision for a variety of Christian educational institutions, in their haste they established none that survived, but instead they destroyed the one school they did operate.

4.   The Importance of Our Colleges

The New Order story underscores anew the vital role of our educational institutions as seedbeds of the future.  It is surely the case that the New Order impact was amplified because it originated in a Bible college.  Just as surely as orthodox views can be imparted much more thoroughly and lastingly in an atmosphere of serious learning in the classroom, so also, errors and misguided claims.

The group most responsive to New Order excesses and responsible for the many defections in Saskatchewan was, of course, the alumni of Bethel Bible Institute. The New Order leaders were their former respected classroom instructors, and loyalties and sentiments out of the past spoke loudly. Though the old Bethel Bible Institute may have lacked somewhat in academic excellence, it succeeded well in molding attitudes and winning partisans.

This course of events in the saga of the New Order is not more endorsement of solid Bible-based educational institutions.  It's a sound object lesson establishing the need for adequate church support and participation in the enterprise of Christian higher education.  It's a poignant call for trained exegetes of the Word of God to take their place in spiritual and intellectual leadership.

In conclusion, it can be said that the New Order's goal of a glorious church without spot and wrinkle is indeed a worthy goal.  Though we may not agree that the pathway leads leads us via North Battleford, we certainly agree on our destination.  But as we would read the Word of God, our place in the Body is not a matter of repudiating the circles in which we move, nor climbing a stairway to perfection if and when God in His sovereignty permits.  The glorious church that Christ will present to Himself is simply that body cleansed by His blood, and sanctified by His life and by His indwelling Spirit, and people who so qualify are just as widespread as appropriating faith in the Gospel of grace through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Editor's Note: Mr. Holcroft kindly granted permission for us to web this article, originally published in the Fall 1980 edition of Pneuma, the journal for the Society of Pentecostal Studies who we have been unable to reach to secure their permission. 


PUBLISHED RESOURCE MATERIALS


 

"An Explanation of Our Position Relative to Spirit Gifts." The Pentecostal Testimony.  June 15, 1949.

"Forward in Fifty - Report of the General Conference of the Assemblies of God, Seattle, Washington." The Pentecostal Testimony.  October 15, 1949.

 Gastonia W. 'F.  "Caution Shipmates." Glad Tidings.  April, 1949.

 Gee, Donald, "Sobriety with Spiritual Gifts." The Pentecostal Testimony.  August 1, 1949.

 McAlister, R. E. "The Manifestations of the Spirit." Booklet published by the author, n.d.

 Ratz, C. A. "Leaving the Principles of the Doctrine of Christ." The Pentecostal Testimony.  June 15, 1949.

 "A Resolution." The Pentecostal Testimony.  November 15, 1949.

 Smith, C. B. "An Explanation Concerning Bethel Bible Institute." The Pentecostal Testimony.  November 15, 1947.

The Sharon Star. (Monthly New Order magazine, Subscription free, North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada S9A 2X5).

"This Present Move of God." (Tract).  North Battleford: The Sharon Star, n.d.

 Williams, E. S. "Spiritual Gifts." The Pentecostal Testimony.  May 15, 1949.

 ___________. "More About Gifts." The Pentecostal Testimony.  June 15, 1949.


INDIVIDUAL RESOURCE PERSONS


The following persons graciously gave personal interviews or responded with helpful letters:

Argue, Robert M. (Principle of Bethel Bible Institute succeeding George Hawtin).

Book, Earl. (Former pastor and now Superintendent, Assemblies of God Oregon District).

Eno, Leslie R. (Pastor succeeding Herrick Holt in North Battleford Foursquare Church).

Frick, Ivar A. (Fortner pastor and now Superintendent, Assemblies of God Michigan District).

Hornby, Max. (Former pastor, brother of the late Eric A. Hornby, Saskatchewan P.A.O.C. Superintendent during Latter Rain years).

Jeffries, Harold W. (Formerly pastor and Supervisor of Saskatchewan churches of the International Church of he Foursquare Gospel).

McAllister, Frank N. (Former pastor and now Superintendent, Assemblies of God Northwest District).

Upton, George R. (Former Executive Director of Overseas Missions Department of the P.A.O.C.

Wylie, George E. (The one "ministry" of the Latter Rain officially recognized in British Columbia).


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